Buy an Hewlett Packard Designjet Z6200 Printer for sale

 

 

 

Buy - Purchase - Lease
HP Designjet in Oklahoma (HP Z6200 42-in Photo Printer CQ109A, HP Z6200 60-in Photo Printer CQ111A)
Large Format Printer on Sale

Hewlett Packard Wide Format Graphic, Production & Technical Printer Plotters

from HP RESELLERS in Oklahoma & ACROSS AMERICA
 

HP DESIGNJET PRINTERS:

Large Format Graphic Printers
hp designjet printer for sale hewlett packard large format printers

 

HP Designjet Z6200 Photo Printer

HP Z6200 42-in Photo Printer CQ109A
HP Z6200 60-in Photo Printer CQ111A

hp designjet printer for sale hewlett packard large format printers


HP Designjet Z3200 Photo Printer

HP Z3200 24-in Printer Q6718A
HP Z3200 44-in Printer Q6719A
HP Z3200ps 24-in Printer Q6720A
HP Z3200ps 44-in Printer Q6721A

hp designjet printer for sale hewlett packard large format printers


HP Designjet Z2100 Photo Printer

HP Z2100 24-in Printer Q6675A
HP Z2100 44-in Printer Q6677A

 

Large Format Multifunction Printers


HP Designjet T2300 eMultifunction Printer

HP T2300 eMFP Printer CN727A
HP T2300ps eMFP Printer CN728A

hp designjet printer for sale hewlett packard large format printers

 

HP Designjet T1200 HD Multifunction Printer

HP T1200 mfp HD Printer CQ653A

HP T1200 mfp HD Printer CQ653B
hp designjet printer for sale hewlett packard large format printers
 

Large Format Production
and Department Printers

hp designjet printer for sale hewlett packard large format printers


HP Designjet L26500 Printer

HP L26500 61-in Printer CQ869A
hp designjet printer for sale hewlett packard large format printers


HP Designjet L28500 Printer

HP L28500 104-in Printer CQ871A
hp designjet printer for sale hewlett packard large format printers


HP Designjet Z5200 Printer

HP Z5200 44-in Postscript CQ113A

hp designjet printer for sale hewlett packard large format printers

 

HP Designjet T7100 Printer

HP T7100 42-in Printer Mono CQ101A
HP T7100 42-in Printer CQ105A
hp designjet printer for sale hewlett packard large format printers
 

Large Format Technical/ Workgroup/Personal Printers

hp designjet printer for sale hewlett packard large format printers


HP Designjet T1300 e Printer

HP T1300 44-in Printer CR651A
HP T1300 44-in Postscript CR652A
hp designjet printer for sale hewlett packard large format printers
 
HP Designjet T790 e Printer

HP T790 24-in Printer CR647A
HP T790 44-in Printer CR649A
HP T790 24-in Postscript CR648A
HP T790 44-in Postscript CR650A

hp designjet printer for sale hewlett packard large format printers

HP Designjet 510 Printer
HP 510 24-in Printer CH336A
HP 510 42-in Printer CH337A
hp designjet printer for sale hewlett packard large format printers
 
 
Not sure what model
is best for you?

CLICK HERE
to help you choose
hp designjet printer for sale hewlett packard large format printers
hp designjet printer for sale hewlett packard large format printers
 
hp designjet printer for sale hewlett packard large format printers
hp designjet printer for sale hewlett packard large format printers
hp designjet printer for sale hewlett packard large format printers
hp designjet printer for sale hewlett packard large format printers
 

FREE SHIPPING
on ALL Models

hp designjet printer for sale hewlett packard large format printers
hp designjet printer for sale hewlett packard large format printers
 
 
>  Home >  Models >  Overview >  Specs > Printable data sheet (.pdf) > Pricing / Contact
 
 
HP Designjet in Oklahoma Large Format Printer Series
Contact Us

Hewlett Packard 4020 printer series

HP Designjet Z6200 sale
HP RESELLERS
in Oklahoma and
ACROSS AMERICA


IS A SMALL GROUP OF NATIONAL HP RESELLERS , EACH PARTICIPATING MEMBER IS AN HP AUTHORIZED DEALER AND TOGETHER, WITH HEWLETT PACKARD, HAVE CUT THE
"NEGOTIATED BEST PRICE" PLAN
ON THE ENTIRE LINE OF HEWLETT PACKARD WIDE FORMAT DESIGNJET PRINTERS
 
FREE SHIPPING on ALL Models
Our Prices are TOO LOW to post online
but if you find it at a lower price, WE WILL BEAT IT!
Call Now
Toll FREE
888-658-4528

Monday through Friday 9 am to 5 pm PST
 
 
 
Email us @ HP Resellers Across America
 
 
 
 

HP Designjet in Oklahoma - Cities We Serve

73001 Albert (405)
73002 Alex (405)
73003 Edmond (405)
73004 Amber (405)
73005 Anadarko (405)
73006 Apache (405)
73007 Arcadia (405)
73008 Bethany (405)
73009 Binger (405)
73010 Blanchard (405)
73011 Bradley (405)
73012 Edmond (405)
73013 Edmond (405)
73014 Calumet (405)
73015 Carnegie (580)
73016 Cashion (405)
73017 Cement (405)
73018 Chickasha (405)
73019 Norman (405)
73019 University of Ok (405)
73020 Choctaw (405)
73021 Colony (405)
73022 Concho (405)
73023 Chickasha (405)
73024 Corn (580)
73025 Edmond (405)
73026 Norman (405)
73027 Coyle (405)
73028 Crescent (405)
73029 Cyril (580)
73030 Davis (580)
73031 Dibble (405)
73032 Dougherty (580)
73033 Eakly (405)
73034 Edmond (405)
73036 El Reno (405)
73038 Fort Cobb (405)
73039 Davis (580)
73040 Geary (405)
73041 Gotebo (580)
73042 Gracemont (405)
73043 Greenfield (405)
73044 Guthrie (405)
73045 Harrah (405)
73047 Hinton (405)
73048 Hydro (405)
73049 Jones (405)
73050 Langston (405)
73051 Lexington (405)
73052 Lindsay (405)
73053 Lookeba (405)
73054 Luther (405)
73055 Bray (405)
73055 Marlow (405)
73056 Marshall (580)
73057 Maysville (405)
73058 Meridian (405)
73059 Minco (405)
73061 Morrison (580)
73062 Mountain View (580)
73063 Mulhall (405)
73064 Mustang (405)
73065 Newcastle (405)
73066 Nicoma Park (405)
73067 Ninnekah (405)
73068 Noble (405)
73069 Norman (405)
73070 Norman (405)
73071 Norman (405)
73072 Norman (405)
73073 Orlando (580)
73074 Paoli (405)
73075 Pauls Valley (405)
73077 Perry (580)
73078 Piedmont (405)
73079 Pocasset (405)
73080 Purcell (405)
73082 Rush Springs (405)
73083 Edmond (405)
73084 Spencer (405)
73085 Yukon (405)
73086 Sulphur (580)
73089 Tuttle (580)
73090 Union City (405)
73092 Verden (405)
73093 Goldsby (405)
73093 Washington (405)
73094 Washita (405)
73095 Wayne (405)
73096 Weatherford (580)
73097 Wheatland (405)
73098 Wynnewood (405)
73099 Yukon (405)
73101 okc (405)
73101 Oklahoma City (405)
73102 okc (405)
73102 Oklahoma City (405)
73103 okc (405)
73103 Oklahoma City (405)
73104 okc (405)
73104 Oklahoma City (405)
73105 okc (405)
73105 Oklahoma City (405)
73106 okc (405)
73106 Oklahoma City (405)
73107 okc (405)
73107 Oklahoma City (405)
73108 okc (405)
73108 Oklahoma City (405)
73109 okc (405)
73109 Oklahoma City (405)
73110 Midwest City (405)
73110 okc (405)
73110 Oklahoma City (405)
73111 okc (405)
73111 Oklahoma City (405)
73112 okc (405)
73112 Oklahoma City (405)
73113 okc (405)
73113 Oklahoma City (405)
73114 okc (405)
73114 Oklahoma City (405)
73115 Del City (405)
73115 okc (405)
73115 Oklahoma City (405)
73116 Nichols Hills (405)
73116 okc (405)
73116 Oklahoma City (405)
73117 okc (405)
73117 Oklahoma City (405)
73118 okc (405)
73118 Oklahoma City (405)
73119 okc (405)
73119 Oklahoma City (405)
73120 Achille (405)
73120 Nichols Hills (405)
73120 okc (405)
73120 Oklahoma City (405)
73120 The Village (405)
73120 Village (405)
73121 okc (405)
73121 Oklahoma City (405)
73122 okc (405)
73122 Oklahoma City (405)
73122 Warr Acres (405)
73123 okc (405)
73123 Oklahoma City (405)
73123 Warr Acres (405)
73124 okc (405)
73124 Oklahoma City (405)
73125 okc (405)
73125 Oklahoma City (405)
73126 okc (405)
73126 Oklahoma City (405)
73127 okc (405)
73127 Oklahoma City (405)
73128 okc (405)
73128 Oklahoma City (405)
73129 okc (405)
73129 Oklahoma City (405)
73130 Midwest City (405)
73130 okc (405)
73130 Oklahoma City (405)
73131 okc (405)
73131 Oklahoma City (405)
73132 okc (405)
73132 Oklahoma City (405)
73132 Warr Acres (405)
73134 okc (405)
73134 Oklahoma City (405)
73135 Del City (405)
73135 okc (405)
73135 Oklahoma City (405)
73136 okc (405)
73136 Oklahoma City (405)
73137 okc (405)
73137 Oklahoma City (405)
73139 okc (405)
73139 Oklahoma City (405)
73140 Midwest City (405)
73140 okc (405)
73140 Oklahoma City (405)
73141 okc (405)
73141 Oklahoma City (405)
73142 okc (405)
73142 Oklahoma City (405)
73143 okc (405)
73143 Oklahoma City (405)
73144 okc (405)
73144 Oklahoma City (405)
73145 Midwest City (405)
73145 okc (405)
73145 Oklahoma City (405)
73145 T A F B (405)
73145 Tinker AFB (405)
73146 okc (405)
73146 Oklahoma City (405)
73147 okc (405)
73147 Oklahoma City (405)
73148 okc (405)
73148 Oklahoma City (405)
73149 okc (405)
73149 Oklahoma City (405)
73150 okc (405)
73150 Oklahoma City (405)
73151 okc (405)
73151 Oklahoma City (405)
73152 okc (405)
73152 Oklahoma City (405)
73153 Moore (405)
73153 okc (405)
73153 Oklahoma City (405)
73154 okc (405)
73154 Oklahoma City (405)
73155 okc (405)
73155 Oklahoma City (405)
73156 okc (405)
73156 Oklahoma City (405)
73157 okc (405)
73157 Oklahoma City (405)
73159 okc (405)
73159 Oklahoma City (405)
73160 Moore (405)
73160 okc (405)
73160 Oklahoma City (405)
73162 okc (405)
73162 Oklahoma City (405)
73163 okc (405)
73163 Oklahoma City (405)
73164 okc (405)
73164 Oklahoma City (405)
73165 Del City (405)
73165 okc (405)
73165 Oklahoma City (405)
73167 okc (405)
73167 Oklahoma City (405)
73169 okc (405)
73169 Oklahoma City (405)
73170 Moore (405)
73170 okc (405)
73170 Oklahoma City (405)
73172 okc (405)
73172 Oklahoma City (405)
73173 okc (405)
73173 Oklahoma City (405)
73178 okc (405)
73178 Oklahoma City (405)
73179 okc (405)
73179 Oklahoma City (405)
73184 Globe Life and Accident Co (405)
73184 okc (405)
73184 Oklahoma City (405)
73185 Bank One (405)
73185 okc (405)
73185 Oklahoma City (405)
73189 okc (405)
73189 Oklahoma City (405)
73190 okc (405)
73190 Okla University Health Sci Center (405)
73190 Oklahoma City (405)
73194 Ok Tax Comm (405)
73194 okc (405)
73194 Oklahoma City (405)
73195 Oklahoma City (405)
73196 Bank of Oklahoma (405)
73196 okc (405)
73196 Oklahoma City (405)
73198 okc (405)
73198 Oklahoma City (405)
73198 USPS Oklahoma Dist (405)
73401 Ardmore (580)
73401 Milo (580)
73401 Pooleville (580)
73402 Ardmore (580)
73403 Ardmore (580)
73425 Countyline (580)
73430 Burneyville (580)
73432 Coleman (580)
73433 Elmore City (580)
73433 Pernell (580)
73434 Foster (580)
73435 Fox (580)
73436 Gene Autry (580)
73437 Graham (580)
73438 Healdton (580)
73439 Kingston (580)
73440 Lebanon (580)
73441 Leon (580)
73442 Loco (580)
73443 Lone Grove (580)
73444 Hennepin (580)
73446 Madill (580)
73446 Mc Millan (580)
73446 Oakland (580)
73447 Mannsville (580)
73448 Marietta (580)
73449 Mead (580)
73450 Milburn (580)
73453 Overbrook (580)
73455 Ravia (580)
73456 Ringling (580)
73458 Springer (580)
73459 Thackerville (580)
73460 Tishomingo (580)
73461 Wapanucka (580)
73463 Rubottom (580)
73463 Wilson (580)
73481 Ratliff City (580)
73487 Tatums (580)
73488 Tussy (580)
73491 Velma (580)
73501 Lawton (580)
73502 Lawton (580)
73503 Fort Sill (580)
73503 Lawton (580)
73505 Lawton (580)
73506 Lawton (580)
73507 Lawton (580)
73520 Addington (580)
73521 Altus (580)
73522 Altus (580)
73523 Altus (580)
73523 Altus AFB (580)
73526 Blair (580)
73527 Cache (580)
73528 Chattanooga (580)
73529 Comanche (580)
73530 Davidson (580)
73531 Devol (580)
73532 Duke (580)
73533 Duncan (580)
73534 Duncan (580)
73536 Duncan (580)
73536 Halliburton (580)
73537 Eldorado (580)
73538 Elgin (580)
73539 Elmer (580)
73540 Faxon (580)
73541 Fletcher (580)
73542 Frederick (580)
73543 Geronimo (580)
73544 Gould (580)
73546 Grandfield (580)
73546 Loveland (580)
73547 Granite (580)
73548 Hastings (580)
73549 Headrick (580)
73550 Hollis (580)
73551 Hollister (580)
73552 Indiahoma (580)
73553 Grandfield (580)
73553 Loveland (580)
73554 Mangum (580)
73554 Reed (580)
73555 Manitou (580)
73556 Martha (580)
73557 Medicine Park (580)
73558 Lawton (580)
73558 Meers (580)
73559 Mountain Park (580)
73560 Olustee (580)
73561 Oscar (580)
73561 Terral (580)
73562 Randlett (580)
73564 Roosevelt (580)
73565 Ryan (580)
73566 Snyder (580)
73567 Sterling (580)
73568 Temple (580)
73569 Grady (580)
73569 Terral (580)
73570 Tipton (580)
73571 Vinson (580)
73572 Walters (580)
73573 Waurika (580)
73601 Clinton (580)
73620 Arapaho (580)
73622 Bessie (580)
73624 Burns Flat (580)
73625 Butler (580)
73626 Canute (580)
73627 Carter (580)
73628 Cheyenne (580)
73628 Strong City (580)
73632 Cordell (580)
73638 Crawford (580)
73639 Custer (580)
73639 Custer City (580)
73641 Dill City (580)
73642 Durham (580)
73644 Elk City (580)
73645 Erick (580)
73646 Fay (580)
73647 Foss (580)
73648 Elk City (580)
73650 Hammon (580)
73651 Hobart (580)
73654 Leedey (580)
73655 Lone Wolf (580)
73658 Eagle City (580)
73658 Oakwood (580)
73659 Putnam (580)
73660 Reydon (580)
73661 Rocky (580)
73662 Sayre (580)
73663 Seiling (580)
73664 Sentinel (580)
73666 Mayfield (580)
73666 Sweetwater (580)
73667 Taloga (580)
73668 Erick (580)
73668 Texola (580)
73669 Thomas (580)
73673 Willow (580)
73701 Enid (580)
73702 Enid (580)
73703 Enid (580)
73705 Enid (580)
73706 Enid (580)
73716 Aline (580)
73717 Alva (580)
73717 Capron (580)
73718 Ames (580)
73719 Amorita (580)
73720 Bison (580)
73722 Burlington (580)
73722 Byron (580)
73724 Canton (580)
73726 Carmen (580)
73727 Carrier (580)
73728 Cherokee (580)
73729 Cleo Springs (580)
73730 Covington (580)
73731 Dacoma (580)
73733 Douglas (580)
73734 Dover (405)
73735 Drummond (580)
73736 Fairmont (580)
73737 Fairview (580)
73737 Orienta (580)
73738 Garber (580)
73739 Goltry (580)
73741 Helena (580)
73742 Hennessey (405)
73743 Hillsdale (580)
73744 Hitchcock (580)
73746 Hopeton (580)
73747 Isabella (580)
73749 Jet (580)
73750 Kingfisher (405)
73753 Kremlin (580)
73754 Lahoma (580)
73755 Longdale (580)
73756 Loyal (405)
73757 Lucien (580)
73758 Manchester (580)
73759 Medford (580)
73760 Meno (580)
73761 Nash (580)
73762 Okarche (405)
73763 Okeene (580)
73764 Omega (405)
73766 Pond Creek (580)
73768 Ringwood (580)
73770 Southard (580)
73771 Wakita (580)
73772 Watonga (580)
73773 Waukomis (580)
73801 Woodward (580)
73802 Woodward (580)
73832 Arnett (580)
73832 Harmon (580)
73834 Buffalo (580)
73834 Selman (580)
73835 Camargo (580)
73838 Chester (580)
73840 Fargo (580)
73841 Fort Supply (580)
73842 Freedom (580)
73843 Gage (580)
73844 Gate (580)
73844 Knowles (580)
73848 Laverne (580)
73848 Logan (580)
73851 May (580)
73852 Mooreland (580)
73853 Mutual (580)
73855 Rosston (580)
73857 Sharon (580)
73858 Shattuck (580)
73859 Vici (580)
73860 Waynoka (580)
73901 Adams (580)
73931 Balko (580)
73932 Beaver (580)
73932 Elmwood (580)
73933 Boise City (580)
73937 Felt (580)
73938 Forgan (580)
73939 Goodwell (580)
73942 Guymon (580)
73944 Hardesty (580)
73945 Hooker (580)
73945 Optima (580)
73946 Kenton (580)
73947 Keyes (580)
73949 Texhoma (580)
73950 Baker (580)
73950 Turpin (580)
73951 Tyrone (580)
74001 Avant (918)
74002 Barnsdall (918)
74002 Pershing (918)
74002 Tallant (918)
74002 Wolco (918)
74003 Bartlesville (918)
74003 Brtlsville (918)
74003 Bville (918)
74003 Glenoak (918)
74003 Hog Shooter (918)
74003 Okesa (918)
74004 Bartlesville (918)
74004 Brtlsville (918)
74004 Bville (918)
74004 Phillips Petroleum (918)
74005 Bartlesville (918)
74005 Brtlsville (918)
74005 Bville (918)
74006 Bartlesville (918)
74006 Brtlsville (918)
74006 Bville (918)
74006 Eastside (918)
74008 Bixby (918)
74010 Bristow (918)
74010 Edna (918)
74010 Newby (918)
74010 Tuskegee (918)
74011 Brkn Arw (918)
74011 Broken Arrow (918)
74012 Brkn Arw (918)
74012 Broken Arrow (918)
74013 Brkn Arw (918)
74013 Broken Arrow (918)
74014 Brkn Arw (918)
74014 Broken Arrow (918)
74015 Catoosa (918)
74015 Cotoosa (918)
74015 Port of Catoo (918)
74016 Bushyhead (918)
74016 Chelsea (918)
74016 Winganon (918)
74017 Clairemore (918)
74017 Claremore (918)
74017 Tiawah (918)
74017 Verdigris (918)
74018 Clairemore (918)
74018 Claremore (918)
74019 Clairemore (918)
74019 Claremore (918)
74020 Baugh (918)
74020 Cleveland (918)
74020 Westport (918)
74021 Collinsville (918)
74021 Cville (918)
74022 Copan (918)
74023 Avery (918)
74023 Cushing (918)
74023 Norfolk (918)
74023 Schlegal (918)
74026 Davenport (918)
74027 Delaware (918)
74028 Depew (918)
74029 Dewey (918)
74030 Drumright (918)
74031 Foyil (918)
74032 Glencoe (580)
74033 Glenpool (918)
74034 Hailey (918)
74034 Hallett (918)
74034 Hallis (918)
74035 Hominy (918)
74036 Inala (918)
74036 Inola (918)
74036 Onola (918)
74037 Jenks (918)
74038 Jennings (918)
74038 Silver City (918)
74039 Kellyville (918)
74041 Keifer (918)
74041 Kiefer (918)
74042 Lenapah (918)
74043 Leonard (918)
74044 Mannford (918)
74044 Mansford (918)
74045 Maramec (918)
74046 Milfay (918)
74047 Mounds (918)
74048 Coodys Bluff (918)
74048 Nowata (918)
74048 Watova (918)
74050 Oakhurst (918)
74051 Ochelata (918)
74052 Oilton (918)
74053 Oologah (918)
74054 Osage (918)
74055 Owasso (918)
74055 Owosso (918)
74056 Bowring (918)
74056 Herd (918)
74056 Nelagony (918)
74056 Pawhuska (918)
74056 Pearsonia (918)
74058 Pawnee (918)
74058 Pownee (918)
74059 Perkins (405)
74060 Prue (918)
74061 Ramona (918)
74062 Ripley (918)
74063 Lotsee (918)
74063 Sand Springs (918)
74063 Sandsprings (918)
74063 SS (918)
74066 Sapulpa (918)
74066 Sepulpa (918)
74066 Supulpa (918)
74067 Sapulpa (918)
74067 Sepulpa (918)
74067 Supulpa (918)
74068 Shamrock (918)
74070 Skiatook (918)
74071 Slick (918)
74072 South Coffeyville (918)
74073 Owasso (918)
74073 Sperry (918)
74074 Stillwater (405)
74074 STW (405)
74075 Stillwater (405)
74075 STW (405)
74076 Stillwater (405)
74076 STW (405)
74077 Ok State University Stu Housing (405)
74077 Stillwater (405)
74077 STW (405)
74078 OK St Unv Adm (405)
74078 OK State University Admin (405)
74078 Stillwater (405)
74078 STW (405)
74079 Kendrick (918)
74079 Stroud (918)
74080 Talala (918)
74081 Terlton (918)
74082 Vera (918)
74083 Noxie (918)
74083 Wann (918)
74084 Wynona (918)
74085 Yale (918)
74101 Tulsa (918)
74102 Tulsa (918)
74103 Tulsa (918)
74104 Tulsa (918)
74105 Tulsa (918)
74106 Tulsa (918)
74107 Tulsa (918)
74108 Tulsa (918)
74110 Tulsa (918)
74112 Tulsa (918)
74114 Tulsa (918)
74115 Tulsa (918)
74116 Tulsa (918)
74117 Tulsa (918)
74119 Tulsa (918)
74120 Tulsa (918)
74121 Tulsa (918)
74126 Tulsa (918)
74126 Turley (918)
74127 Tulsa (918)
74128 Tulsa (918)
74129 Tulsa (918)
74130 Tulsa (918)
74131 Tulsa (918)
74132 Tulsa (918)
74133 Tulsa (918)
74134 Tulsa (918)
74135 Tulsa (918)
74136 Tulsa (918)
74137 Tulsa (918)
74141 Tulsa (918)
74145 Tulsa (918)
74146 Tulsa (918)
74147 Tulsa (918)
74148 Tulsa (918)
74149 Tulsa (918)
74150 Tulsa (918)
74152 Tulsa (918)
74153 Tulsa (918)
74155 Tulsa (918)
74156 Tulsa (918)
74157 Tulsa (918)
74158 Tulsa (918)
74159 Tulsa (918)
74169 Tulsa (918)
74170 Tulsa (918)
74171 Oral Roberts University (918)
74171 Tulsa (918)
74172 Tulsa (918)
74172 Williams Center (918)
74182 Bok Mail Service (918)
74182 Tulsa (918)
74186 Oklahoma Natural Gas (918)
74186 Tulsa (918)
74187 Tulsa (918)
74187 Tulsa City Utilities (918)
74192 Bok Mail Service (918)
74192 Tulsa (918)
74193 First National Bank Mail Service (918)
74193 Tulsa (918)
74301 Centralia (918)
74301 Pensacola (918)
74301 Vinita (918)
74301 White Oak (918)
74330 Adair (918)
74331 Afton (918)
74331 Aston (918)
74331 Bernice (918)
74331 Bird Island (918)
74331 Cleora (918)
74331 Monkey Island (918)
74332 Big Cabin (918)
74333 Bluejacket (918)
74335 Cardin (918)
74337 Chouteau (918)
74337 Mazie (918)
74338 Colcord (918)
74339 Commerce (918)
74340 Disney (918)
74342 Eucha (918)
74343 Fairland (918)
74344 Grove (918)
74344 Grove City (918)
74345 Grove (918)
74345 Grove City (918)
74346 Jay (918)
74347 Kansas (918)
74349 Ketchum (918)
74350 Langley (918)
74352 Locust Grove (918)
74354 Maimi (918)
74354 Miami (918)
74355 Maimi (918)
74355 Miami (918)
74358 North Miami (918)
74359 Oaks (918)
74360 Picher (918)
74361 Pryor (918)
74361 Pryor Creek (918)
74362 Pryor (918)
74362 Pryor Creek (918)
74363 Peoria (918)
74363 Quapaw (918)
74364 Rose (918)
74365 Salina (918)
74366 Spavinaw (918)
74367 Strang (918)
74368 Twin Oaks (918)
74369 Welch (918)
74370 Wyandotte (918)
74401 Bacone (918)
74401 Beland (918)
74401 Keefeton (918)
74401 Martin (918)
74401 McLain (918)
74401 Musk (918)
74401 Muskogee (918)
74401 Summitt (918)
74401 Wybark (918)
74402 Musk (918)
74402 Muskogee (918)
74403 Musk (918)
74403 Muskogee (918)
74421 Beggs (918)
74422 Boynton (918)
74423 Braggs (918)
74425 Canadian (918)
74426 Bond (918)
74426 Checotah (918)
74426 Pierce (918)
74426 Texanna (918)
74427 Cookson (918)
74428 Council Hill (918)
74429 Choska (918)
74429 Coweta (918)
74429 New Tulsa (918)
74430 Crowder (918)
74431 Dewar (918)
74432 Eufaula (918)
74432 Eutaula (918)
74432 Lake Eufaula (918)
74432 Stidham (918)
74434 Fort Gibson (918)
74435 Gore (918)
74436 Haskell (918)
74437 Coalton (918)
74437 Grayson (918)
74437 Henryetta (918)
74437 Hoffman (918)
74437 Salem (918)
74437 Spelter City (918)
74438 Hitchita (918)
74439 Braggs (918)
74440 Hoyt (918)
74441 Hulbert (918)
74442 Indianola (918)
74444 Moodys (918)
74445 Morris (918)
74446 Okay (918)
74447 Nuyaka (918)
74447 Okmulgee (918)
74447 Twin Hills (918)
74450 Oktaha (918)
74451 Park Hill (918)
74451 Pettit (918)
74451 Qualls (918)
74452 Peggs (918)
74454 Porter (918)
74454 Tullahassee (918)
74455 Porum (918)
74456 Preston (918)
74457 Proctor (918)
74458 Redbird (918)
74459 Rentiesville (918)
74460 Schulter (918)
74461 Eufaula (918)
74461 Stidham (918)
74462 Enterprise (918)
74462 Stigler (918)
74462 Tamaha (918)
74463 Taft (918)
74464 Tahlequah (918)
74464 Talequah (918)
74464 Thlequah (918)
74465 Tahlequah (918)
74465 Talequah (918)
74465 Thlequah (918)
74467 Wagoner (918)
74468 Wainwright (918)
74469 Warner (918)
74470 Webbers Falls (918)
74471 Welling (918)
74472 Hoyt (918)
74472 Whitefield (918)
74477 Wagoner (918)
74501 Bache (918)
74501 Haywood (918)
74501 McAlester (918)
74501 Richville (918)
74501 Scipio (918)
74502 McAlester (918)
74521 Albion (918)
74522 Alderson (918)
74523 Antlers (580)
74525 Atoka (580)
74528 Blanco (918)
74529 Blocker (918)
74529 McAlester (918)
74530 Bromide (580)
74531 Calvin (405)
74533 Caney (580)
74534 Centrahoma (580)
74535 Clarita (580)
74536 Clayton (918)
74538 Coalgate (580)
74538 Colgate (580)
74538 Cottonwood (580)
74538 Olney (580)
74538 Phillips (580)
74540 Daisy (580)
74542 Atoka (580)
74542 Farris (580)
74543 Finley (580)
74545 Gowen (918)
74546 Haileyville (918)
74547 Hartshorne (918)
74549 Honobia (580)
74549 Kiamichi (580)
74549 Kiamichi Christian Mission (580)
74552 Kinta (918)
74553 Kiowa (918)
74554 Krebs (918)
74555 Lane (580)
74556 Lehigh (580)
74557 Moyers (580)
74558 Nashoba (918)
74559 Panola (918)
74560 Pittsburg (918)
74561 Quinton (918)
74562 Rattan (580)
74563 Red Oak (918)
74565 Savanna (918)
74567 Snow (580)
74569 Stringtown (580)
74570 Stuart (918)
74571 Talihina (918)
74572 Tupelo (580)
74574 Tuskahoma (918)
74576 Wardville (918)
74577 Whitesboro (918)
74578 Higgins (918)
74578 Wilburton (918)
74601 Kildare (580)
74601 Ponca City (580)
74602 Kildare (580)
74602 Ponca City (580)
74604 Kildare (580)
74604 Ponca City (580)
74630 Billings (580)
74631 Blackwell (580)
74632 Braman (580)
74633 Burbank (918)
74636 Deer Creek (580)
74637 Fairfax (918)
74640 Hunter (580)
74641 Kaw (580)
74641 Kaw City (580)
74643 Lamont (580)
74644 Marland (580)
74646 Nardin (580)
74647 Newkirk (580)
74647 Peckham (580)
74650 Ralston (918)
74651 Red Rock (580)
74652 Foraker (918)
74652 Shidler (918)
74653 Tonkawa (580)
74701 Durant (580)
74702 Durant (580)
74720 Achille (580)
74721 Albany (580)
74722 Battiest (580)
74723 Bennington (580)
74723 Wade (580)
74724 Bethel (580)
74726 Bokchito (580)
74727 Boswell (580)
74728 BB (580)
74728 Brkn Bow (580)
74728 Broken Bow (580)
74729 Caddo (580)
74730 Calera (580)
74731 Cartwright (580)
74733 Colbert (580)
74734 Eagletown (580)
74735 Fort Towson (580)
74736 Garvin (580)
74737 Golden (580)
74738 Grant (580)
74740 Haworth (580)
74740 Tom (580)
74741 Hendrix (580)
74741 Yarnaby (580)
74743 Hugo (580)
74745 Idabel (580)
74747 Kemp (580)
74748 Kenefic (580)
74750 Millerton (580)
74752 Pickens (580)
74753 Platter (580)
74754 Ringold (580)
74755 Rufe (580)
74756 Sawyer (580)
74759 Soper (580)
74760 Spencerville (580)
74761 Swink (580)
74764 Valliant (580)
74766 Wright City (580)
74801 Shawnee (405)
74802 Shawnee (405)
74804 Shawnee (405)
74818 Seminole (405)
74820 Ada (580)
74820 Pontotoc (580)
74821 Ada (580)
74824 Agra (918)
74825 Allen (580)
74826 Asher (405)
74827 Atwood (405)
74829 Boley (918)
74830 Bowlegs (405)
74831 Byars (405)
74832 Carney (405)
74833 Castle (918)
74833 Welty (918)
74834 Chandler (405)
74836 Connerville (580)
74837 Cromwell (405)
74839 Dustin (918)
74840 Earlsboro (405)
74842 Fittstown (580)
74843 Fitzhugh (580)
74844 Francis (580)
74845 Hanna (918)
74845 Vernon (918)
74848 Holdenville (405)
74849 Konawa (580)
74850 Lamar (405)
74851 Dale (405)
74851 McLoud (405)
74852 Macomb (405)
74854 Maud (405)
74855 Meeker (405)
74856 Mill Creek (580)
74857 Newalla (405)
74859 Bearden (918)
74859 Mason (918)
74859 Okemah (918)
74860 Paden (405)
74864 Prague (405)
74865 Roff (580)
74866 Saint Louis (405)
74867 Sasakwa (405)
74868 Seminole (405)
74869 Sparks (918)
74871 Harden City (580)
74871 Stonewall (580)
74872 Stratford (580)
74873 Pink (405)
74873 Tecumseh (405)
74875 Tryon (918)
74878 Wanette (405)
74880 Clearview (405)
74880 Pharoah (405)
74880 Weleetka (405)
74881 Wellston (405)
74883 Wetumka (405)
74884 New Lima (405)
74884 Wewoka (405)
74901 Arkoma (918)
74902 Pocola (918)
74930 Bokoshe (918)
74931 Bunch (918)
74932 Cameron (918)
74935 Fanshawe (918)
74936 Gans (918)
74937 Heavener (918)
74939 Hodgen (918)
74940 Howe (918)
74941 Cowlington (918)
74941 Keota (918)
74942 Leflore (918)
74943 Lequire (918)
74944 McCurtain (918)
74945 Marble City (918)
74946 Moffett (918)
74947 Monroe (918)
74948 Muldrow (918)
74949 Muse (918)
74951 Panama (918)
74953 Poteau (918)
74954 Roland (918)
74955 Sallisaw (918)
74956 Shady Point (918)
74957 Octavia (580)
74957 Smithville (580)
74959 Spiro (918)
74960 Stilwell (918)
74962 Vian (918)
74963 Watson (580)
74964 Watts (918)
74965 Westville (918)
74966 Summerfield (918)
74966 Wister (918)

OKLAHOMA FACTS
State of Oklahoma
Flag of Oklahoma State seal of Oklahoma
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): Sooner State
Motto(s): Labor omnia vincit (Latin)
Map of the United States with Oklahoma highlighted
Official language(s) English
Demonym Oklahoman; Okie (colloq.)
Capital Oklahoma City
Largest city Oklahoma City
Area  Ranked 20th in the US
 - Total 69,898 sq mi
(181,195 km2)
 - Width 230 miles (370 km)
 - Length 298 miles (480 km)
 - % water 1.8
 - Latitude 33°37' N to 37° N
 - Longitude 94°?26' W to 103° W
Population  Ranked 28th in the US
 - Total 3,751,351 (2010 Census Estimate)
Density 54.6/sq mi  (21.1/km2)
Ranked 36th in the US
Elevation  
 - Highest point Black Mesa[1]
4,973 ft  (1,515 m)
 - Mean 1,296 ft  (395 m)
 - Lowest point Little River[1]
289 ft  (88 m)
Before statehood Oklahoma Territory
Admission to Union  November 16, 1907 (46th)
Governor Mary Fallin (R)
Lieutenant Governor Todd Lamb (R)
Legislature Oklahoma Legislature
 - Upper house Senate
 - Lower house House of Representatives
U.S. Senators Jim Inhofe (R)
Thomas A. Coburn (R)
U.S. House delegation 4 Republicans, 1 Democrat (list)
Time zones  
 - all of the state (legally) Central: UTC-6/-5
 - Kenton (informally) Mountain: UTC-7/-6
Abbreviations OK Okla. US-OK
Website http://www.ok.gov

Oklahoma (Listeni /?o?kl?'ho?m?/)[2] is a state located in the South Central region of the United States of America. With an estimated 3,751,351 residents as of the 2010 census and a land area of 68,667 square miles (177,847 km²),[3] Oklahoma is the 28th most populous and 20th-largest state. The state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning "red people",[4] and is known informally by its nickname, The Sooner State. Formed by the combination of Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory on November 16, 1907, Oklahoma was the 46th state to enter the union. Its residents are known as Oklahomans, and its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City.

A major producer of natural gas, oil and agriculture, Oklahoma relies on an economic base of aviation, energy, telecommunications, and biotechnology.[5] It has one of the fastest growing economies in the nation, ranking among the top states in per capita income growth and gross domestic product growth.[6][7] Oklahoma City and Tulsa serve as Oklahoma's primary economic anchors, with nearly 60 percent of Oklahomans living in their metropolitan statistical areas.[8] The state's largest universities participate in the NCAA and NAIA athletic associations, with two collegiate athletic departments rated among the most successful in American history.[9][10]

With small mountain ranges, prairie, and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma lies in the Great Plains and the U.S. Interior Highlands—a region especially prone to severe weather.[11] In addition to having a prevalence of German, Irish, British and Native American ancestry, more than 25 Native American languages are spoken in Oklahoma, the most of any state.[12] It is located on a confluence of three major American cultural regions and historically served as a route for cattle drives, a destination for southern settlers, and a government-sanctioned territory for Native Americans. Part of the Bible Belt, widespread belief in evangelical Christianity makes it one of the most politically conservative states, though Oklahoma has more voters registered with the Democratic Party than with any other party.[13]

Contents

[hide]

[edit] Etymology

The name Oklahoma comes from the Choctaw phrase okla humma, literally meaning red people. Choctaw Chief Allen Wright suggested the name in 1866 during treaty negotiations with the federal government regarding the use of Indian Territory, in which he envisioned an all-Indian state controlled by the United States Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Equivalent to the English word Indian, okla humma was a phrase in the Choctaw language used to describe the Native American race as a whole. Oklahoma later became the de facto name for Oklahoma Territory, and it was officially approved in 1890, two years after the area was opened to white settlers.[4][14][15]

[edit] Geography

The state's high plains stretch behind a greeting sign in the Oklahoma Panhandle.

Oklahoma is the 20th-largest state in the United States, covering an area of 69,898 square miles (181,035 km²), with 68,667 square miles (177847 km²) of land and 1,231 square miles (3,188 km²) of water.[16] It is one of six states on the Frontier Strip, and lies partly in the Great Plains near the geographical center of the 48 contiguous states. It is bounded on the east by Arkansas and Missouri, on the north by Kansas, on the northwest by Colorado, on the far west by New Mexico, and on the south and near-west by Texas.

[edit] Topography

Oklahoma is situated between the Great Plains and the Ozark Plateau in the Gulf of Mexico watershed,[17] generally sloping from the high plains of its western boundary to the low wetlands of its southeastern boundary.[18][19] Its highest and lowest points follow this trend, with its highest peak, Black Mesa, at 4,973 feet (1,516 m) above sea level, situated near its far northwest corner in the Oklahoma Panhandle. The state's lowest point is on the Little River near its far southeastern boundary near the town of Idabel, OK, which dips to 289 feet (88 m) above sea level.[20]

A river carves a canyon in the Wichita Mountains.

Among the most geographically diverse states, Oklahoma is one of four to harbor more than 10 distinct ecological regions, with 11 in its borders — more per square mile than in any other state.[11] Its western and eastern halves, however, are marked by extreme differences in geographical diversity: Eastern Oklahoma touches eight ecological regions and its western half contains three.[11]

Oklahoma has four primary mountain ranges: the Ouachita Mountains, the Arbuckle Mountains, the Wichita Mountains, and the Ozark Mountains.[18] Contained within the U.S. Interior Highlands region, the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains mark the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachians.[21] A portion of the Flint Hills stretches into north-central Oklahoma, and in the state's southeastern corner, Cavanal Hill is regarded by the Oklahoma Tourism & Recreation Department as the world's tallest hill; at 1,999 feet (609 m), it fails their definition of a mountain by one foot.[22]

The semi-arid high plains in the state’s northwestern corner harbor few natural forests. Oklahoma there is a rolling to flat landscape with intermittent canyons and mesa ranges like the Glass Mountains. Partial plains interrupted by small mountain ranges like the Antelope Hills and the Wichita Mountains dot southwestern Oklahoma, and transitional prairie and woodlands cover the central portion of the state. The Ozark and Ouachita Mountains rise from west to east over the state's eastern third, gradually increasing in elevation in an eastward direction.[19][23] More than 500 named creeks and rivers make up Oklahoma's waterways, and with 200 lakes created by dams, it holds the highest number of artificial reservoirs in the nation.[22] Most of the state lies in two primary drainage basins belonging to the Red and Arkansas rivers, though the Lee and Little rivers also contain significant drainage basins.[23]

[edit] Flora and fauna

Populations of American Bison inhabit the state's prairie ecosystems.

Forests cover 24 percent of Oklahoma[22] and prairie grasslands composed of shortgrass, mixed-grass, and tallgrass prairie, harbor expansive ecosystems in the state's central and western portions, although cropland has largely replaced native grasses.[24] Where rainfall is sparse in the western regions of the state, shortgrass prairie and shrublands are the most prominent ecosystems, though pinyon pines, red cedar (junipers), and ponderosa pines grow near rivers and creek beds in the far western reaches of the panhandle.[24] Marshlands, cypress forests and mixtures of shortleaf pine, loblolly pine and deciduous forests dominate the state's southeastern quarter, while mixtures of largely post oak, elm, white cedar (Thuja) and pine forests cover northeastern Oklahoma.[23][24][25]

The state holds populations of white-tailed deer, coyotes, bobcats, elk, and birds such as quail, doves, cardinals, bald eagles, red-tailed hawks, and pheasants. In prairie ecosystems, american bison, greater prairie-chickens, badgers, and armadillo are common, and some of the nation's largest prairie dog towns inhabit shortgrass prairie in the state's panhandle. The Cross Timbers, a region transitioning from prairie to woodlands in Central Oklahoma, harbors 351 vertebrate species. The Ouachita Mountains are home to black bear, red fox, grey fox, and river otter populations, which coexist with a total of 328 vertebrate species in southeastern Oklahoma. Also, in southeastern Oklahoma lives the American Alligator.[24]

[edit] Protected lands

Mesas rise above one of Oklahoma's state parks.

Oklahoma has 50 state parks,[26] six national parks or protected regions,[27] two national protected forests or grasslands,[28] and a network of wildlife preserves and conservation areas. Six percent of the state's 10 million acres (40,000 km²) of forest is public land,[25] including the western portions of the Ouachita National Forest, the largest and oldest national forest in the southern United States.[29] With 39,000 acres (158 km²), the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in north-central Oklahoma is the largest protected area of tallgrass prairie in the world and is part of an ecosystem that encompasses only 10 percent of its former land area, once covering 14 states.[30] In addition, the Black Kettle National Grassland covers 31,300 acres (127 km²) of prairie in southwestern Oklahoma.[31] The Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge is the oldest and largest of nine national wildlife refuges in the state[32] and was founded in 1901, encompassing 59,020 acres (238.8 km²).[33] Of Oklahoma's federally protected park or recreational sites, the Chickasaw National Recreation Area is the largest, with 9,898.63 acres (18 km²).[34] Other federal protected sites include the Santa Fe and Trail of Tears national historic trails, the Fort Smith and Washita Battlefield national historic sites, and the Oklahoma City National Memorial.[27]

[edit] Climate

Oklahoma is located in a temperate region and experiences occasional extremes of temperature and precipitation typical in a continental climate.[35] Most of the state lies in an area known as Tornado Alley characterized by frequent interaction between cold and warm air masses producing severe weather.[20] An average 54 tornadoes strike the state per year—one of the highest rates in the world.[36] Because of its position between zones of differing prevailing temperature and winds, weather patterns within the state can vary widely between relatively short distances and can change drastically in a short time.[20] As an example, on November 11, 1911, the temperature at Oklahoma City reached 83 °F in the afternoon (the record high for that date), then an incoming squall line resulted in a drop to 17 °F at midnight (the record low for that date); thus, both the record high and record low for November 11 were set on the same day.[37]

Oklahoma's climate is prime for thunderstorm development.

The humid subtropical climate (Koppen Cfa) of the eastern part of Oklahoma influenced heavily by southerly winds bringing moisture from the Gulf of Mexico, but transitions progressively to a semi-arid zone (Koppen BSk) in the high plains of the Panhandle and other western areas from about Lawton westward less frequently touched by southern moisture.[35] Precipitation and temperatures fall from east to west accordingly, with areas in the southeast averaging an annual temperature of 62 °F (17 °C) and an annual rainfall of 56 inches (1,420 mm), while areas of the panhandle average 58 °F (14 °C), with an annual rainfall under 17 inches (430 mm).[20] All of the state frequently experiences temperatures above 100 °F (38 °C) or below 0 °F (-18 °C),[35] and snowfall ranges from an average of less than 4 inches (10 cm) in the south to just over 20 inches (51 cm) on the border of Colorado in the panhandle.[20] The state is home to the Storm Prediction Center, the National Severe Storms Laboratory, and the Warning Decision Training Branch, all part of the National Weather Service and located in Norman.[38]

Monthly temperatures for Oklahoma's largest cities
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Oklahoma City 47/26 54/31 62/39 71/48 79/58 87/66 93/71 92/70 84/62 73/51 60/38 50/29
Tulsa 46/26 53/31 62/40 72/50 80/59 88/68 94/73 93/71 84/63 74/51 60/39 50/30
Lawton 50/26 56/31 65/40 73/49 82/59 90/68 96/73 95/71 86/63 76/51 62/39 52/30
Average high/low temperatures in °F[39][40]

[edit] History

Evidence exists that native peoples traveled through Oklahoma as early as the last ice age,[41] but the state's first permanent inhabitants settled in communities accentuated with mound-like structures near the Arkansas border between 850 and 1450 AD.[42][43] Spaniard Francisco Vásquez de Coronado traveled through the state in 1541,[44] but French explorers claimed the area in the 1700s[45] and it remained under French rule until 1803, when all the French territory west of the Mississippi River was purchased by the United States in the Louisiana Purchase.[44]

During the 19th century, thousands of Native Americans were expelled from their ancestral homelands from across North America and transported to the area including and surrounding present-day Oklahoma. The Choctaw was the first of the "Five Civilized Tribes" to be removed from the southeastern United States. The phrase "Trail of Tears" originated from a description of the removal of the Choctaw Nation in 1831, although the term is usually used for the Cherokee removal.[46] About 17,000 Cherokees — along with approximately 2,000 black slaves owned by Cherokees — were removed from their homes.[47] The area, already occupied by Osage and Quapaw tribes, was called for the Choctaw Nation until revised Native American and then later American policy redefined the boundaries to include other Native Americans. By 1890, more than 30 Native American nations and tribes had been concentrated on land within Indian Territory or "Indian Country."[48] Many Native Americans served in the Union and Confederate military during the American Civil War. The Cherokees had an internal civil war.[49]

In the period between 1866 and 1899,[44] cattle ranches in Texas strove to meet the demands for food in eastern cities and railroads in Kansas promised to deliver in a timely manner. Cattle trails and cattle ranches developed as cowboys either drove their product north or settled illegally in Indian Territory.[44] In 1881, four of five major cattle trails on the western frontier traveled through Indian Territory.[50] Increased presence of white settlers in Indian Territory prompted the United States Government to establish the Dawes Act in 1887, which divided the lands of individual tribes into allotments for individual families, encouraging farming and private land ownership among native Americans but expropriating land to the federal government. In the process, nearly half of Indian-held land within the territory was taken for outside settlers and for purchase by railroad companies.[51]

The Dust Bowl sent thousands of farmers into poverty during the 1930s.

Major land runs, including the Land Run of 1889, were held for settlers on the hour that certain territories were opened to settlement. Usually, land was open to settlers on a first come first served basis.[52] Those who broke the rules by crossing the border into the territory before it was allowed were said to have been crossing the border sooner, leading to the term sooners, which eventually became the state's official nickname.[53]

Delegations to make the territory into a state began near the turn of the 20th century, when the Curtis Act furthered the theft of Indian tribal lands in Indian Territory. Attempts to create an all-Indian state named Oklahoma and a later attempt to create an all-Indian state named Sequoyah failed but the Sequoyah Statehood Convention of 1905 eventually laid the groundwork for the Oklahoma Statehood Convention, which took place two years later.[54] On November 16, 1907, Oklahoma was established as the 46th state in the Union.

The bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City was one of the deadliest acts of terrorism in American history.

The new state became a focal point for the emerging oil industry, as discoveries of oil pools prompted towns to grow rapidly in population and wealth. Tulsa eventually became known as the "Oil Capital of the World" for most of the 20th century and oil investments fueled much of the state's early economy.[55] In 1927, Oklahoma businessman Cyrus Avery, known as the "Father of Route 66" began a campaign to create U.S. Route 66. Using a stretch of highway from Amarillo, Texas to Tulsa, Oklahoma to form the original portion of Highway 66, Avery spearheaded the creation of the U.S. Highway 66 Association to oversee the planning of Route 66, based in his hometown of Tulsa.[56]

Oklahoma also has a rich African American history. There were many black towns that thrived in the early 20th century because of black settlers moving from neighboring states, especially Kansas. Politician Edward P. McCabe started the movement of many black settlers to the then Indian Territory. This movement encouraged Edward P. McCabe to actually talk to President Theodore Roosevelt about making Oklahoma a majority-black state. Many of the all black towns are now ghost towns. Boley and Langston (home of the historically black university Langston University) still thrive today.[citation needed]

In the early 20th century, despite Jim Crow Laws and a statewide presence of the Ku Klux Klan, Tulsa was home to Greenwood, one of the most prosperous African American communities in the United States,[57] but was the site of the Tulsa Race Riot in 1921. One of the costliest acts of racial violence in American history, sixteen hours of rioting resulted in 35 city blocks destroyed, $1.8 million in property damage and a death toll estimated to be as high as 300 people.[58] By the late 1920s, the Ku Klux Klan was reduced to negligible influence within the state.[59]

During the 1930s, parts of the state began feeling the consequences of poor farming practices, drought and high winds. Known as the Dust Bowl, areas of Kansas, Texas, New Mexico and northwestern Oklahoma were hampered by long periods of little rainfall and abnormally high temperatures, sending thousands of farmers into poverty and forcing them to relocate to more fertile areas of the western United States.[60] Over a twenty-year period ending in 1950, the state saw its only historical decline in population, dropping 6.9 percent. In response, dramatic efforts in soil and water conservation led to massive flood control systems and dams, creating hundreds of reservoirs and man-made lakes. By the 1960s, more than 200 lakes had been created, the most in the nation.[11][61]

In 1995, Oklahoma City became the scene of one of the worst acts of terrorism ever committed in American history. The Oklahoma City bombing of April 19, 1995, in which Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols detonated an explosive outside of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, killed 168 people including 19 children. Timothy McVeigh was executed by the federal government June 11, 2001, while his partner Terry Nichols is currently serving life in prison without the possibility of parole.[62]

[edit] Economy

The BOK Tower of Tulsa, Oklahoma's tallest building, serves as the world headquarters for Williams Companies.

Based in the sectors of aviation, energy, transportation equipment, food processing, electronics, and telecommunications, Oklahoma is an important producer of natural gas, aircraft, and food.[5] The state ranks second in the nation for production of natural gas,[63] and is the 27th-most agriculturally productive state, ranking 5th in production of wheat.[64] Four Fortune 500 companies and three Fortune 1000 companies are headquartered in Oklahoma,[65] and it has been rated one of the most business-friendly states in the nation,[66] with the 7th-lowest tax burden in 2007.[67] From 2000 to 2006, Oklahoma's gross domestic product grew 50 percent, the fifth-highest rate in the nation. It had the fastest-growing GDP between 2005 and 2006, increasing from $122.5 to $134.6 billion, a jump of 10.8 percent,[7] and its gross domestic product per capita grew 5.9 percent from $36,364 in 2006 to $38,516 in 2007, the third-fastest rate in the nation. Its 2007 per capita GDP ranked 41st among the states.[68] Though oil has historically dominated the state's economy, a collapse in the energy industry during the 1980s led to the loss of nearly 90,000 energy-related jobs between 1980 and 2000, severely damaging the local economy.[69] Oil accounted for 17 percent of Oklahoma's economic impact in 2005,[70] and employment in the state's oil industry was outpaced by five other industries in 2007.[71]

As of January 2010, the state's unemployment rate is 6.7%.[72]

[edit] Industry

In early 2007, Oklahoma had a civilian labor force of 1.7 million and total non-farm employment fluctuated around 1.6 million.[71] The government sector provides the most jobs, with 326,000 in 2007, followed by the transportation and utilities sector, providing 285,000 jobs, and the sectors of education, business, and manufacturing, providing 191,000, 178,000, and 151,000 jobs, respectively.[71] Among the state's largest industries, the aerospace sector generates $11 billion annually.[66] Tulsa is home to the largest airline maintenance base in the world, which serves as the global maintenance and engineering headquarters for American Airlines.[73] In total, aerospace accounts for more than 10 percent of Oklahoma's industrial output, and it is one of the top 10 states in aerospace engine manufacturing.[5] Because of its position in the center of the United States, Oklahoma is also among the top states for logistic centers, and a major contributor to weather-related research.[66] The state is the top manufacturer of tires in North America and contains one of the fastest-growing biotechnology industries in the nation.[66] In 2005, international exports from Oklahoma's manufacturing industry totaled $4.3 billion, accounting for 3.6 percent of its economic impact.[74] Tire manufacturing, meat processing, oil and gas equipment manufacturing, and air conditioner manufacturing are the state's largest manufacturing industries.[75]

[edit] Energy

A major oil producing state, Oklahoma is the fifth-largest producer of crude oil in the nation.[76]

Oklahoma is the nation's second-largest producer of natural gas, fifth-largest producer of crude oil, and has the second-greatest number of active drilling rigs,[76] and ranks fifth in crude oil reserves.[77] While the state ranked fifth for installed wind energy capacity in 2005,[78] it is at the bottom of states in usage of renewable energy, with 96 percent of its electricity being generated by non-renewable sources in 2002, including 64 percent from coal and 32 percent from natural gas.[79] Ranking 11th for total energy consumption per capita in 2006,[80] Oklahoma's energy costs were 10th lowest in the nation.[76] As a whole, the oil energy industry contributes $23 billion to Oklahoma's gross domestic product,[70] and employees of Oklahoma oil-related companies earn an average of twice the state's typical yearly income.[81] In 2004, the state had 83,750 commercial oil wells and as many as 750,000 total wells,[70][77] churning 178 thousand barrels of crude oil a day.[77] Ten percent of the nation's natural gas supply is held in Oklahoma, with 1.662 trillion cubic feet (47.1 km3).[77]

According to Forbes Magazine, Oklahoma City-based Devon Energy Corporation, Chesapeake Energy Corporation, and SandRidge Energy Corporation are the largest private oil-related companies in the nation,[82] and all of Oklahoma's Fortune 500 companies are energy-related.[65] In 2006, Tulsa-based Semgroup ranked 5th on the Forbe's list of largest private companies, Tulsa-based QuikTrip ranked 46th, and Oklahoma City-based Love's Travel Stops & Country Stores ranked 25th in 2008 report.[82] Tulsa's ONEOK and Williams Companies are the state's largest and second-largest companies respectively, also ranking as the nation's second and third-largest companies in the field of energy, according to Fortune Magazine.[83] The magazine also placed Devon Energy as the second-largest company in the mining and crude oil-producing industry in the nation, while Chesapeake Energy ranks seventh respectively in that sector and Oklahoma Gas & Electric ranks as the 25th-largest gas and electric utility company.[83]

[edit] Agriculture

The 27th-most agriculturally productive state, Oklahoma is fifth in cattle production and fifth in production of wheat.[64][84] Approximately 5.5 percent of American beef comes from Oklahoma, while the state produces 6.1 percent of American wheat, 4.2 percent of American pig products, and 2.2 percent of dairy products.[64] The state had 83,500 farms in 2005, collectively producing $4.3 billion in animal products and under one billion dollars in crop output with more than $6.1 billion added to the state's gross domestic product.[64] Poultry and swine are its second and third-largest agricultural industries.[84]

[edit] Culture

Oklahoma's heritage as a pioneer state is depicted with the Pioneer Woman statue in Ponca City.

Oklahoma is placed in the South by the United States Census Bureau,[85] but lies fully or partially in the Southwest, and southern cultural regions by varying definitions, and partially in the Upland South and Great Plains by definitions of abstract geographical-cultural regions.[86] Oklahomans have a high rate of German, English, Scotch-Irish, and Native American ancestry,[87] with 25 different native languages spoken, more than in any other state.[12] Six governments have claimed the area at different times,[88] and 67 Native American tribes are represented in Oklahoma,[44] including the greatest number of tribal headquarters and 39 federally recognized nations.[89] Western ranchers, native American tribes, southern settlers, and eastern oil barons have shaped the state's cultural predisposition, and its largest cities have been named among the most underrated cultural destinations in the United States.[90][91] While residents of Oklahoma are associated with stereotypical traits of southern hospitality — the Catalogue for Philanthropy ranks Oklahomans 4th in the nation for overall generosity[92] — the state has also been associated with a negative cultural stereotype first popularized by John Steinbeck's novel "The Grapes of Wrath", which described the plight of uneducated, poverty-stricken Dust Bowl-era farmers deemed "Okies".[93][94][95] However, the term is used in a positive manner by Oklahomans.[94]

[edit] Arts and theater

Philbrook Museum is one of the top 50 fine art museums in the United States.[96]

In the state's largest urban areas, pockets of jazz culture flourish,[97] and Native American, Mexican, and Asian enclaves produce music and art of their respective cultures.[98] The Oklahoma Mozart Festival in Bartlesville is one of the largest classical music festivals in the southern United States,[99] and Oklahoma City's Festival of the Arts has been named one of the top fine arts festivals in the nation.[97] The state has a rich history in ballet with five Native American ballerinas attaining world wide fame; Yvonne Chouteau, sisters Marjorie and Maria Tallchief, Rosella Hightower and Moscelyne Larkin, known collectively as the Five Moons. The Tulsa Ballet, is rated as one of the top ballet companies in the United States by the New York Times.[97] The Oklahoma City Ballet and University of Oklahoma's dance program were formed by ballerina Yvonne Chouteau and husband Miguel Terekhov. The University program was founded in 1962 and was the first fully accredited program of its kind in the United States.[100][101][102] In Sand Springs, an outdoor amphitheater called "Discoveryland!" is the official performance headquarters for the musical Oklahoma![103] Historically, the state has produced musical styles such as The Tulsa Sound and Western Swing, which was popularized at Cain's Ballroom in Tulsa. The building, known as the "Carnegie Hall of Western Swing",[104] served as the performance headquarters of Bob Wills and the Texas Playboys during the 1930s.[105] Stillwater is known as the epicenter of Red Dirt music, the best-known proponent of which is the late Bob Childers.

Prominent theatre companies in Oklahoma include, in the capital city, Oklahoma City Theatre Company, Carpenter Square Theatre, Oklahoma Shakespeare in the Park, and CityRep. CityRep is a professional company affording equity points to those performers and technical theatre professionals. In Tulsa, Oklahoma's oldest resident professional company is American Theatre Company, and Theatre Tulsa is the oldest community theatre company west of the Mississippi. Other companies in Tulsa include Heller Theatre and Tulsa Spotlight Theater. The cities of Norman, Lawton, and Stillwater, among others, also host well-reviewed community theatre companies.

Oklahoma is in the nation's middle percentile in per capita spending on the arts, ranking 17th, and contains more than 300 museums.[97] The Philbrook Museum of Tulsa is considered one of the top 50 fine art museums in the United States,[96] and the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History in Norman, one of the largest university-based art and history museums in the country, documents the natural history of the region.[97] The collections of Thomas Gilcrease are housed in the Gilcrease Museum of Tulsa, which also holds the world's largest, most comprehensive collection of art and artifacts of the American West.[106] The Oklahoma City Museum of Art contains the most comprehensive collection of glass sculptures by artist Dale Chihuly in the world,[107] and Oklahoma City's National Cowboy and Western Heritage Museum documents the heritage of the American Western frontier.[97] With remnants of the Holocaust and artifacts relevant to Judaism, the Sherwin Miller Museum of Jewish Art of Tulsa preserves the largest collection of Jewish art in the Southwest United States.[108]

[edit] Festivals and events

Native American cultural events like pow wows are common in Oklahoma.

Oklahoma's centennial celebration was named the top event in the United States for 2007 by the American Bus Association,[109] and consisted of multiple celebrations saving with the 100th anniversary of statehood on November 16, 2007. Annual ethnic festivals and events take place throughout the state such as Native American powwows and ceremonial events, and include festivals in Scottish, Irish, Italian, Vietnamese, Chinese, Czech, Jewish, Arab, Mexican and African-American communities depicting cultural heritage or traditions. During a 10-day run in Oklahoma City, the Oklahoma State Fair attracts close to one million people,[110] and large pow-wows, Asian festivals, and Juneteenth celebrations are held in the city each year. The Tulsa State Fair attracts over one million people during its 10-day run,[111] and the city's Mayfest festival entertained more than 375,000 people in four days during 2007.[112] In 2006, Tulsa's Oktoberfest was named one of the top 10 in the world by USA Today and one of the top German food festivals in the nation by Bon Appetit magazine.[113] Tulsa also hosts the annual music festival Dfest, a festival that highlights native Oklahoma bands and musicians. Norman plays host to the Norman Music Festival. Norman is also host to the Medieval Fair of Norman, which has been held annually since 1976 and was Oklahoma’s first medieval fair. The Fair was held first on the south oval of the University of Oklahoma campus and in the third year moved to the Duck Pond in Norman until the Fair became too big and moved to Reaves Park in 2003. The Medieval Fair of Norman is Oklahoma’s “largest weekend event and the third largest event in Oklahoma, and was selected by Events Media Network as one of the top 100 events in the nation.”[114]

[edit] Education

Oklahoma's system of public regional universities includes Northeastern State University in Tahlequah.

With an educational system made up of public school districts and independent private institutions, Oklahoma had 631,337 students enrolled in 1,849 public primary, secondary, and vocational schools in 540 school districts as of 2006.[115] Oklahoma has the highest enrollment of Native American students in the nation with 120,122 students in the 2005-06 school year.[116] Ranked near the bottom of states in expenditures per student, Oklahoma spent $6,614 for each student in 2005, 47th in the nation,[115] though its growth of total education expenditures between 1992 and 2002 ranked 22nd.[117] The state is among the best in pre-kindergarten education, and the National Institute for Early Education Research rated it first in the United States with regard to standards, quality, and access to pre-kindergarten education in 2004, calling it a model for early childhood schooling.[118] While high school dropout rates decreased 29 percent between 2005 and 2006, Oklahoma ranked in the bottom three states in the nation for retaining high school seniors,[119] with a 3.2 percent dropout rate.[115] In 2004, the state ranked 36th in the nation for the relative number of adults with high school diplomas, though at 85.2 percent, it had the highest rate among southern states.[120][121]

The University of Oklahoma and Oklahoma State University are the largest public institutions of higher education in Oklahoma, both operating through one primary campus and satellite campuses throughout the state. The two state universities, along with Oklahoma City University and the University of Tulsa, rank among the country's best in undergraduate business programs,[122] The University of Tulsa College of Law, Oklahoma City University's School of Law, and the University of Oklahoma College of Law are the state's only ABA accredited institutions. The University of Oklahoma and University of Tulsa are in the top percentage of universities nationally for academic ratings, with the University of Tulsa the only university ranked in the top 100.[10] Oklahoma holds eleven public regional universities,[123] including Northeastern State University, the second-oldest institution of higher education west of the Mississippi River,[124] also containing the only College of Optometry in Oklahoma[125] and the largest enrollment of Native American students in the nation by percentage and amount.[124][126] Langston University is Oklahoma's only historically black college. Six of the state's universities were placed in the Princeton Review's list of best 122 regional colleges in 2007,[127] and three made the list of top colleges for best value. The state has 54 post-secondary technical institutions operated by Oklahoma's CareerTech program for training in specific fields of industry or trade.[115]

In the 2007-2008 school year, there were 181,973 undergraduate students, 20,014 graduate students, and 4,395 first-professional degree students enrolled in Oklahoma colleges. Of these students, 18,892 received a bachelor's degree, 5,386 received a masters degree, and 462 received a first professional degree. This means the state of Oklahoma produces an average of 38,278 degree-holders per completions component (i.e. July 1, 2007-June 30, 2008). The national average is 68,322 total degrees awarded per completions component.[128]

[edit] Sports

Oklahoma supports popular sports, with teams in basketball, football, arena football, baseball, soccer, hockey, and wrestling located in Oklahoma City, Tulsa, Enid, Norman, and Lawton. The Oklahoma City Thunder of the National Basketball Association and the Tulsa Shock of the Women's National Basketball Association are the state's only major league sports franchises, but minor league sports, including minor league baseball at the Minor league baseball AAA and AA levels Oklahoma City RedHawks and Tulsa Drillers, respectively, hockey with the Oklahoma City Barons in the AHL, and arena football in the AF1 league are hosted by the Oklahoma City Yard Dawgz and the Tulsa Talons. Oklahoma City also hosts the Oklahoma City Lightning playing in the National Women's Football Association, and Tulsa is the base for the Tulsa 66ers of the NBA Development League and the Tulsa Revolution, which plays in the American Indoor Soccer League.[129] Enid and Lawton host professional basketball teams in the USBL and the CBA.

The NBA's New Orleans Hornets became the first major league sports franchise based in Oklahoma when the team was forced to relocate to Oklahoma City's Ford Center for two seasons following Hurricane Katrina in 2005.[130] In July 2008, the Seattle SuperSonics, owned by a group of Oklahoma City businessmen led by Clayton Bennett, relocated to Oklahoma City and announced that play would begin at Ford Center as the Oklahoma City Thunder in 2008, becoming the state's first permanent major league franchise.[131]

Collegiate athletics are a popular draw in the state. The University of Oklahoma Sooners and the Oklahoma State University Cowboys average well over 50,000 fans attending their football games, and the University of Oklahoma's American football program ranked 13th in attendance among American colleges in 2006, with an average of 84,561 people attending its home games.[132] The two universities meet several times each year in rivalry matches known as the Bedlam Series, which are some of the greatest sporting draws to the state. Sports Illustrated magazine rates the University of Oklahoma and Oklahoma State University among the top colleges for athletics in the nation.[9][133] In addition, 12 of the state's smaller colleges or universities participate in the NAIA, mostly within the Sooner Athletic Conference.[134]

Regular LPGA tournaments are held at Cedar Ridge Country Club in Tulsa, and major championships for the PGA or LPGA have been played at Southern Hills Country Club in Tulsa, Oak Tree Country Club in Oklahoma City, and Cedar Ridge Country Club in Tulsa.[135] Rated one of the top golf courses in the nation, Southern Hills has hosted four PGA Championships, including one in 2007, and three U.S. Opens, the most recent in 2001.[136] Rodeos are popular throughout the state, and Guymon, in the state's panhandle, hosts one of the largest in the nation.[137]

[edit] Health

INTEGRIS Cancer Institute of Oklahoma, Located at Oklahoma City, OK
The southwest regional facility for the Cancer Treatment Centers of America is located in Tulsa.

The state was the 21st-largest recipient of medical funding from the federal government in 2005, with health-related federal expenditures in the state totaling $75,801,364; immunizations, bioterrorism preparedness, and health education were the top three most funded medical items.[138] Instances of major diseases are near the national average in Oklahoma, and the state ranks at or slightly above the rest of the country in percentage of people with asthma, diabetes, cancer, and hypertension.[138]

In 2000, Oklahoma ranked 45th in physicians per capita and slightly below the national average in nurses per capita, but was slightly over the national average in hospital beds per 100,000 people and above the national average in net growth of health services over a 12-year period.[139] One of the worst states for percentage of insured people, nearly 25 percent of Oklahomans between the age of 18 and 64 did not have health insurance in 2005, the fifth-highest rate in the nation.[140] Oklahomans are in the upper half of Americans in terms of obesity prevalence, and the state is the 5th most obese in the nation, with 30.3 percent of its population at or near obesity.[141]

INTEGRIS Cancer Institute of Oklahoma, along with Proton Therapy Center, is the 6th comprehensive cancer treatment centers in the country currently providing both conventional radiation therapy and proton therapy.[142] The OU Medical Center, Oklahoma's largest collection of hospitals, is the only hospital in the state designated a Level I trauma center by the American College of Surgeons. OU Medical Center is located on the grounds of the Oklahoma Health Center in Oklahoma City, the state's largest concentration of medical research facilities.[143][144] The Regional Medical Center of the Cancer Treatment Centers of America in Tulsa is one of four such regional facilities nationwide, offering cancer treatment to the entire southwestern United States, and is one of the largest cancer treatment hospitals in the country.[145] The largest osteopathic teaching facility in the nation, Oklahoma State University Medical Center at Tulsa, also rates as one of the largest facilities in the field of neuroscience.[146][147]

[edit] Media

The second largest newspaper in Oklahoma, the Tulsa World has a circulation of 189,789.[148]

Oklahoma City and Tulsa are the 45th and 61st-largest media markets in the United States as ranked by Nielsen Media Research. The state's third-largest media market, Lawton-Wichita Falls, Texas, is ranked 144th nationally by the agency.[149] Broadcast television in Oklahoma began in 1949 when KFOR-TV (then WKY-TV) in Oklahoma City and KOTV-TV in Tulsa began broadcasting a few months apart.[150] Currently, all major American broadcast networks have affiliated television stations in the state.[151]

The state has two primary newspapers. The Oklahoman, based in Oklahoma City, is the largest newspaper in the state and 48th-largest in the nation by circulation, with a weekday readership of 215,102 and a Sunday readership of 287,505. The Tulsa World, the second most widely circulated newspaper in Oklahoma and 77th in the nation, holds a Sunday circulation of 189,789 and a weekday readership of 138,262.[148] Oklahoma's first newspaper was established in 1844, called the Cherokee Advocate, and was written in both Cherokee and English.[152] In 2006, there were more than 220 newspapers located in the state, including 177 with weekly publications and 48 with daily publications.[152]

Two large public radio networks are broadcast in Oklahoma: Oklahoma Public Radio and Public Radio International. First launched in 1955, Oklahoma Public Radio was the first public radio network in Oklahoma, and has won 271 awards for outstanding programming.[153] Public Radio International broadcasts on 10 stations throughout the state, and provides more than 400 hours of programming.[154] The state's first radio station, WKY in Oklahoma City, signed on in 1920, followed by KRFU in Bristow, which later moved to Tulsa and became KVOO in 1927.[155] In 2006, there were more than 500 radio stations in Oklahoma broadcasting with various local or nationally owned networks.[156]

Oklahoma has a few ethnic-oriented TV stations broadcasting in Spanish, Asian languages and sometimes have Native American programming. TBN, a Christian religious television network has a studio in Tulsa, and built their first entirely TBN-owned affiliate in Oklahoma City in 1980.[157]

[edit] Transportation

One of ten major toll highways in Oklahoma, the Will Rogers Turnpike extends northeast from Tulsa.

Transportation in Oklahoma is generated by an anchor system of Interstate Highways, intercity rail lines, airports, inland ports, and mass transit networks. Situated along an integral point in the United States Interstate network, Oklahoma contains three interstate highways and four auxiliary Interstate Highways. In Oklahoma City, Interstate 35 intersects with Interstate 44 and Interstate 40, forming one of the most important intersections along the United States highway system.[158] More than 12,000 miles (19,000 km) of roads make up the state's major highway skeleton, including state-operated highways, ten turnpikes or major toll roads,[158] and the longest drivable stretch of Route 66 in the nation.[159] In 2005, Interstate 44 in Oklahoma City was Oklahoma's busiest highway, with a daily traffic volume of 131,800 cars.[160] In 2007, the state had the nation's highest number of bridges classified as structurally deficient, with nearly 6,300 bridges in disrepair, including 127 along its primary highway system.[161]

Map of Oklahoma showing major roads and thoroughfares

Oklahoma's largest commercial airport is Will Rogers World Airport in Oklahoma City, averaging a yearly passenger count of more than 3.5 million in 2005.[162] Tulsa International Airport, the state's second largest commercial airport, serves more than three million travelers annually.[163] Between the two, thirteen major airlines operate in Oklahoma.[164][165] In terms of traffic, Riverside-Jones airport in Tulsa is the state's busiest airport, with 235,039 takeoffs and landings in 2006.[166] In total, Oklahoma has over 150 public-use airports.[167]

Oklahoma is connected to the nation's rail network via Amtrak's Heartland Flyer, its only regional passenger rail line. It currently stretches from Oklahoma City to Fort Worth, Texas, though lawmakers began seeking funding in early 2007 to connect the Heartland Flyer to Tulsa.[168] Two inland ports on rivers serve Oklahoma: the Port of Muskogee and the Tulsa Port of Catoosa. The only port handling international cargo in the state, the Tulsa Port of Catoosa is the most inland ocean-going port in the nation and ships over two million tons of cargo each year.[169][170] Both ports are located on the McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System, which connects barge traffic from Tulsa and Muskogee to the Mississippi River via the Verdigris and Arkansas rivers, contributing to one of the busiest waterways in the world.[170]

[edit] Law and government

The Oklahoma State Capitol located in Oklahoma City.

Oklahoma is a constitutional republic with a government modeled after the Federal Government of the United States, with executive, legislative, and judicial branches.[171] The state has 77 counties with jurisdiction over most local government functions within each respective domain,[19] five congressional districts, and a voting base with a majority in the Democratic Party.[13] State officials are elected by plurality voting.

[edit] State government

The Legislature of Oklahoma consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. As the lawmaking branch of the state government, it is responsible for raising and distributing the money necessary to run the government. The Senate has 48 members serving four-year terms, while the House has 101 members with two year terms. The state has a term limit for its legislature that restricts any one person to a total of twelve cumulative years service between both legislative branches.[172][173]

Oklahoma's judicial branch consists of the Oklahoma Supreme Court, the Oklahoma Court of Criminal Appeals, and 77 District Courts that each serves one county. The Oklahoma judiciary also contains two independent courts: a Court of Impeachment and the Oklahoma Court on the Judiciary. Oklahoma has two courts of last resort: the state Supreme Court hears civil cases, and the state Court of Criminal Appeals hears criminal cases (this split system exists only in Oklahoma and neighboring Texas). Judges of those two courts, as well as the Court of Civil Appeals are appointed by the Governor upon the recommendation of the state Judicial Nominating Commission, and are subject to a non-partisan retention vote on a six-year rotating schedule.[172]

The Oklahoma Senate chamber houses the operations of the Oklahoma Senate.

The executive branch consists of the Governor, his staff, and other elected officials. The principal head of government, the Governor is the chief executive of the Oklahoma executive branch, serving as the ex officio Commander-in-Chief of the Oklahoma National Guard when not called into Federal use and reserving the power to veto bills passed through the Legislature. The responsibilities of the Executive branch include submitting the budget, ensuring that state laws are enforced, and ensuring peace within the state is preserved.[174]

[edit] Local government

The state is divided into 77 counties that govern locally, each headed by a three-member council of elected commissioners, a tax assessor, clerk, court clerk, treasurer, and sheriff.[175] While each municipality operates as a separate and independent local government with executive, legislative and judicial power, county governments maintain jurisdiction over both incorporated cities and non-incorporated areas within their boundaries, but have executive power but no legislative or judicial power. Both county and municipal governments collect taxes, employ a separate police force, hold elections, and operate emergency response services within their jurisdiction.[176][177] Other local government units include school districts, technology center districts, community college districts, rural fire departments, rural water districts, and other special use districts.

Thirty-nine Native American tribal governments are based in Oklahoma, each holding limited powers within designated areas. While Indian reservations typical in most of the United States are not present in Oklahoma, tribal governments hold land granted during the Indian Territory era, but with limited jurisdiction and no control over state governing bodies such as municipalities and counties. Tribal governments are recognized by the United States as quasi-sovereign entities with executive, judicial, and legislative powers over tribal members and functions, but are subject to the authority of the United States Congress to revoke or withhold certain powers. The tribal governments are required to submit a constitution and any subsequent amendments to the United States Congress for approval.[178][179]

Five congressional districts are located in Oklahoma.

[edit] National politics

Presidential election results[180]
Year Republicans Democrats
2008 65.65% 960,165 34.35% 502,496
2004 65.57% 959,792 34.43% 503,966
2000 60.31% 744,337 38.43% 474,276
1996 48.26% 582,315 40.45% 488,105
1992 42.65% 592,929 34.02% 473,066
1988 57.93% 678,367 41.28% 483,423
1984 68.61% 861,530 30.67% 385,080
1980 60.50% 695,570 34.97% 402,026
1976 49.96% 545,708 48.75% 532,442
1972 73.70% 759,025 24.00% 247,147
1968 47.68% 449,697 31.99% 301,658
1964 44.25% 412,665 55.75% 519,834
1960 59.02% 533,039 40.98% 533,039

For most of the first half of the 20th century, Oklahoma was a Democratic stronghold. From 1908 to 1948, the state only supported a Republican twice, in 1920 and 1928. However, Oklahoma Democrats have always been considerably more conservative than their counterparts in the rest of the nation, and the state has become increasingly friendly to Republicans at the national level.

Though registered Republicans are a minority in the state,[13] Oklahoma has voted for a Republican for President in all but one election since 1952. In 2004 and 2008, George W. Bush and John McCain swept every county in the state, both receiving over 65 percent of the statewide vote. In 2008, Oklahoma was the only state whose counties voted unanimously for McCain.[181]

Generally, Republicans are strongest in Oklahoma City, Tulsa and their close-in suburbs, as well as the Panhandle. Democrats are strongest in the eastern part of the state and Little Dixie.

Following the 2000 census, the Oklahoma delegation to the U.S. House of Representatives was reduced from six to five representatives, each serving one congressional district. For the 112th Congress (2011–2013), there are no changes in party strength, and the delegation has four Republicans and one Democrat. Oklahoma's U.S. senators are Republicans Jim Inhofe and Tom Coburn, and its U.S. Representatives are John Sullivan (R-OK-1), Dan Boren (D-OK-2), Frank D. Lucas (R-OK-3), Tom Cole (R-OK-4), and James Lankford (R-OK-5).

[edit] Cities and towns

Oklahoma City is the state's capital and largest city by population and land area.

Oklahoma had 549 incorporated places in 2006, including three cities over 100,000 in population and 40 over 10,000. Two of the fifty largest cities in the United States are located in Oklahoma, Oklahoma City and Tulsa, and 58 percent of Oklahomans live within their metropolitan areas, or spheres of economic and social influence defined by the United States Census Bureau as a metropolitan statistical area.[8][182] Oklahoma City, the state's capital and largest city, had the largest metropolitan area in the state in 2007, with 1,269,907 people, and the metropolitan area of Tulsa had 905,755 residents.[183] Between 2005 and 2006, the Tulsa suburbs of Jenks, Bixby, and Owasso led the state in population growth, showing percentage growths of 47.9, 44.56, and 34.31, respectively.[184]

Tulsa is the state's second largest city by population and land area.

In descending order of population, Oklahoma's largest cities in 2007 were: Oklahoma City (547,274), Tulsa (384,037), Norman (106,707), Lawton (91,568), Broken Arrow (90,714), Edmond (78,226), Midwest City (55,935), Moore (51,106), Enid (47,008), and Stillwater (46,976). Of the state's ten largest cities, three are outside the metropolitan areas of Oklahoma City and Tulsa, and only Lawton has a metropolitan statistical area of its own as designated by the United States Census Bureau, though the metropolitan statistical area of Fort Smith, Arkansas extends into the state.[184]

Under Oklahoma law, municipalities are divided into two categories: cities, defined as having more than 1,000 residents, and towns, with under 1,000 residents. Both have legislative, judicial, and public power within their boundaries, but cities can choose between a mayor-council, council-manager, or strong mayor form of government, while towns operate through an elected officer system.[176]

[edit] Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1890 258,657
1900 790,391 205.6%
1910 1,657,155 109.7%
1920 2,028,283 22.4%
1930 2,396,040 18.1%
1940 2,336,434 -2.5%
1950 2,233,351 -4.4%
1960 2,328,284 4.3%
1970 2,559,229 9.9%
1980 3,025,290 18.2%
1990 3,145,585 4.0%
2000 3,450,654 9.7%
2010 3,751,351 8.7%
Source: 1910-2010[185]
Oklahoma Population Density Map

As of 2008, Oklahoma had a population of 3,642,361[186] with an estimated 2005 ancestral makeup of 14.5% German, 13.1% American, 11.8% Irish, 9.6% English, 8.1% African American, and 11.4% Native American, including 7.9% Cherokee,[187][188] though the percentage of people claiming American Indian as their only race was 8.1%.[3] Most people from Oklahoma who self-identify as having American ancestry are of overwhelmingly English ancestry with significant amounts of Scottish and Welsh inflection as well.[189][190] The state had the second highest number of Native Americans in 2002, estimated at 395,219, as well as the second highest percentage among all states.[188] As of 2006, 4.7% of Oklahoma's residents were foreign born,[191] compared to 12.4% for the nation.[192] The center of population of Oklahoma is located in Lincoln County near the town of Sparks.[193]

The state's 2006 per capita personal income ranked 37th at $32,210, though it has the third-fastest growing per capita income in the nation[6] and ranks consistently among the lowest states in cost of living index.[194] The Oklahoma City suburb Nichols Hills is first on Oklahoma locations by per capita income at $73,661, though Tulsa County holds the highest average.[184] In 2006, 6.8% of Oklahomans were under the age of 5, 25.9% under 18, and 13.2% were 65 or older. Females made up 50.9% of the population.


Demographics of Oklahoma (csv)
By race White Black AIAN* Asian NHPI*
2000 (total population) 82.59% 8.31% 11.39% 1.71% 0.15%
2000 (Hispanic only) 4.73% 0.19% 0.37% 0.05% 0.02%
2005 (total population) 82.20% 8.55% 11.31% 1.92% 0.16%
2005 (Hispanic only) 6.10% 0.24% 0.35% 0.06% 0.03%
Growth 2000–05 (total population) 2.33% 5.76% 2.04% 15.49% 9.51%
Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only) 0.50% 5.17% 2.22% 15.19% 9.47%
Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only) 32.58% 31.44% -3.27% 25.17% 9.69%
* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander

[edit] Religion

Oklahoma is part of a geographical region characterized by widespread conservative Christianity and Evangelical Protestantism known as the "Bible Belt". Spanning the Southeastern United States, the area is known for politically and socially conservative views. Tulsa, the state's second largest city, home to Oral Roberts University, is considered an apex of the region and is known as one of the "buckles of the Bible Belt".[195][196] According to the Pew Research Center, the majority of Oklahoma's religious adherents — 85 percent — are Christian, accounting for about 80 percent of the population. The percentage of Oklahomans affiliated with Catholicism is half of the national average, while the percentage affiliated with Evangelical Protestantism is more than twice the national average — tied with Arkansas for the largest percentage of any state.[197]

Adherents participate in 73 major affiliations spread between 5,854 congregations, ranging from the Southern Baptist Convention, with 1578 churches and 967,223 members, to the Holy Orthodox Church in North America, with 1 church and 6 members. The state's largest church memberships are in the Southern Baptist Convention, the United Methodist Church, with 322,794 members, the Roman Catholic Church, with 168,625, the Assemblies of God, with 88,301, and Churches of Christ, with 83,047.[198] In 2000, there were about 5,000 Jews and 6,000 Muslims, with 10 congregations to each group.[198]

Oklahoma religious makeup:[198][A]

[edit] State symbols

The American Bison, Oklahoma's state mammal
Oklahoma's quarter, released in 2008 as part of the state quarters series, depicts Oklahoma's state bird flying above its state wildflower.[199]

Oklahoma's state emblems and honorary positions are codified by state law;[200] the Oklahoma Senate or House of Representatives may adopt resolutions designating others for special events and to benefit organizations.

State symbols:[201]

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes

A. ^ Determined by a survey by the Pew Research Center in 2008. Percentages represent claimed religious beliefs, not necessarily membership in any particular congregation. Figures have a ±5 percent margin of error.[197]
B. ^ Buddhism, Islam, Hinduism, Judaism, other faiths each account for less than 1 percent. Jehovah's Witness, Mormons, Orthodox Christianity, and other Christian traditions each compose less than .5% percent. 1% refused to answer the Pew Research Center's survey.[197]

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[edit] Further reading

  • Baird, W. David; and Danney Goble (1994). The Story of Oklahoma. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-2650-7. 
  • Dale, Edward Everett; and Morris L. Wardell (1948). History of Oklahoma. New York: Prentice-Hall. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=9570550. 
  • Gibson, Arrell Morgan (1981). Oklahoma: A History of Five Centuries (2nd ed. ed.). Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1758-3. 
  • Goble, Danney (1980). Progressive Oklahoma: The Making of a New Kind of State. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1510-6. 
  • Jones, Stephen (1974). Oklahoma Politics in State and Nation (vol. 1 (1907-62) ed.). Enid, Okla.: Haymaker Press. 
  • Joyce, Davis D. (ed.) (1994). An Oklahoma I Had Never Seen Before: Alternative Views of Oklahoma History. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-2599-3. 
  • Morgan, Anne Hodges; and H. Wayne Morgan (eds.) (1982). Oklahoma: New Views of the Forty-sixth State. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1651-X. 
  • Morgan, David R.; Robert E. England, and George G. Humphreys (1991). Oklahoma Politics and Policies: Governing the Sooner State. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-3106-7. 
  • Morris, John W.; Charles R. Goins, and Edwin C. McReynolds (1986). Historical Atlas of Oklahoma (3rd ed. ed.). Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1991-8. 
  • Wishart, David J. (ed.) (2004). Encyclopedia of the Great Plains. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-4787-7. 

[edit] External links

General

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Maps and demographics

Preceded by
Utah
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on November 16, 1907 (46th)
Succeeded by
New Mexico

Coordinates: 35°30'N 98°00'W? / ?35.5°N 98°W? / 35.5; -98


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